In Genesis, and the first mention is a fig leaf – which means there is also a fig tree. When Adam and Eve used it as covering – it became a symbol of covering or, more specifically, covering of nakedness, which signifies mortality, which, in turn, signifies sin…
Paul makes a point Look at 2 Cor. 5:2-3, “For indeed in this house (mortal body) we groan, longing to be clothed (immortality) with our dwelling from heaven (spiritual, glorified body), inasmuch as we, having put it on (in resurrection and transfiguration), will not be found naked (mortal).”
Starting with Adam and moving on to the nation of Judah, the fig tree became a symbol of man's weakness and inability to take away sin. The best that could be done was the covering of sin. Only in the Son of God is sin taken away.
Jeremiah who was raised up to speak to Judah in their condition. He was shown two types of figs, very good figs and very bad figs, so bad that they were rotten and inedible. The very good figs were the ones who obediently went into captivity. They accepted the Lord's judgment to remove them from the land because of their falling away from the Lord. The very bad figs were the ones who disobediently refused to go into captivity. They chose to remain either on the land or to dwell in Egypt. They remained and did not receive His judgment, then became very bad or rotten figs.
Look at Matthew 7:17-19, Jesus said “So every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit. A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire." Many people use these verses to refer to the lost or to Christians. When take into account framework with Adam and Jerimiah 24, Jesus obviously had in mind the words that He spoke to Jeremiah some 600 years earlier about the good figs and the bad figs. Because of their obedience, the Lord promised to return them to their land and give them a heart to know Him. "They will return to Me with their whole heart" (Jeremiah 24:7). Indeed, a remnant returned to rebuild Jerusalem and this formed the heart of the good fig nation of Judah that followed Jesus and accepted Him.
There are many more fig metaphors …
Matthew 24:32-34, 32 “Now learn the parable from the fig tree: when its branch has already become tender and puts forth its leaves, you know that summer is near; 33 so, you too, when you see all these things, recognize that He is near, right at the door. 34 Truly I say to you, this generation will not pass away until all these things take place.
1 Kings 4:25, “So Judah and Israel lived in safety, every man under his vine and his fig tree, from Dan even to Beersheba, all the days of Solomon.”
“I found Israel like grapes in the wilderness;
I saw your forefathers as the earliest fruit on the fig tree in its first season.
But they came to Baal-peor and devoted themselves to [a]shame,
And they became as detestable as that which they loved.”
Many already understand the fig tree to be a Biblical symbol of the true Israel. And rightly so, for even Jesus Himself confirms the "Israel - fig" connection in Matthew 21.
Matthew 21:19, “Seeing a lone fig tree by the road, He came to it and found nothing on it except leaves only; and He *said to it, “No longer shall there ever be any fruit from you.” And at once the fig tree withered.”
The TRUE and FIRST Israel denied Jesus as Messiah did they not. When Jesus walked into Jerusalem, He found nothing. He even looked upon them and wept? They had NO FRUIT and just as He prophetically announced, just as we learned earlier was inevitable, after the 490 years, they "withered away" and died as the "true" Israel. Probation closed for them on the very day they stoned Stephan. When Jesus said... "Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever" He was prophesying as to the end result of the 70 weeks. And here is further evidence of that very fact.